All of you who knew Tiia Johannson physically and virtually are invited to submit your personal condolence statement  and send it via email to
Press Release
Agricola de Cologne, director of JavaMuseum
Raivo Kelomees, artist and husband of Tiia
Melinda Rackham, media artist from  Australia
Dagmar Kase, media artist from Estonia
Katrin Kivimaa, art critic from Estonia
Chiara Passa, net artist from Italy
Studio XX, Canada

Katrin Kivimaa

During the nineties, Estonian contemporary art has undergone the process that might be characterised as part of the medialisation of the culture. Indeed, one of the most significant features of our visual arts of the 1990s is the introduction of different new media into “high” art such as photography, video and computer based media. The first two became quickly institutionalised and started to form a large part of the most important exhibitions like the annual exhibitions of the Estonian Center for Contemporary Arts (previously Soros Center for Contemporary Arts). The video is currently perhaps the most popular medium in art being extensively used by both representative artists as well as art students. The range of videos produced varies from hi-tech installations to home-video quality works which all have found their audience as well as the place on different exhibitions and festivals.

The position of new media art, by which I mean art related to computer technology, is, however, much more ambiguous and therefore, more interesting. In this essay I am especially interested in the works located on the internet and artists’ CD-ROMs as both demand from the viewer very different engagement and positioning in the space as do the gallery based works. The interactivity and hypertextuality characteristic to works located on the internet work against the passive viewer versus seductive work of art relationship. 

Art located on the internet also exceeds the limits of traditional definition of art and  is ultimately linked to the specificity of computerised communication being, thus, connected to the wider net culture and theory. The idea of radically different social engagement which lies behind the net culture has also formed the local understanding of introducing the new media into art. In short, the actual emergence of net based art works have often been in Estonia connected with the ideas of the subversive potential of net culture as such. Therefore, my interest is also evoked by net art’s potentiality to function as intervention into existing art structures as well as into general understanding of art. 

At the same time, the doubts about the credibility of new media art remain. Many new media art proponents in Estonia have agreed that new media art continues to occupy the margins of our visual culture. It is true that installations and videos appeal more to both general and specialised audience while the net art maintain its position as something foreign to the audience and insignificant in our culture, in short, “not good enough” art. The reasons for this are multiple starting from the disbelief into technological art forms up to net art’s “invisibility” and the lack of presence in the real (gallery) space. In any case, nowadays the net art and CD-ROMs seem to be the future rather than a presence of (mainstream) Estonian art. This futuristic dimension is precisely that which makes net art more exciting as already established video or installation art.

Art from the Corner?

Artistic works localised on the Internet […] encourage us to be active as they offer interaction with the system, as well as are showing values of decentralisation and emphasising the need for freedom.[1]


Similar to many other post-Soviet countries, Estonia happened to be introduced to the computer mediated communication at the moment when the country itself opened to the rest of the world after almost fifty years of the “iron curtain”. The internet as the model of free, democratic communication attained a special meaning in the new context of  interacting with the world, almost acquiring a status of the signifier of this process itself. This particular situation explains also the official policy to computerise the whole country as quickly as possible and to arrive in the information society, the official goal undertaken on the governmental level. At the same time, the arrival of new media was often seen in the context of an overall transformation of the culture. Not surprisingly, the responses varied from welcoming optimism to negative views which perceived internet as threatening the local, national culture.  

What concerns the new media and art then so-called utopian models of the internet as a free, democratic forum of communication have been playing an important role in forming the ideology around it. For instance, Raivo Kelomees has characterised the state support to media art as the sign of transition from “traditions and conservatism [in the visual arts] to the art of the future.”[2] Several younger critics and curators, including myself, have insisted on maintaining the idea of utopian in the situation where the political, transformative, or radical in art are called into question.   

This all is not to deny the strong presence of commercialisation of the internet in Estonian society. On the contrary, mainstream discourses on Internet are heavily governed by economic reasoning. Their message goes as follows: when Estonia will become an open society (or maybe it is already) and will be connected to the global the economic growth and tolerant mentality are on their way too as if they were some by-products of the Internet access.[3] Online commerce is viewed to be a new promise for Estonian economic development and the quick arrival to the long-waited economical paradise, the promise which celebrated capitalist system and market economy so far fail to fulfil. Thus, local “Internet revolution” seem to may begin only as a commercial breakthrough is the message the admirers of internet economy want to convey.

Yet, the artistic practices have mostly been linked to the ideas of internet as a site of possible counterculture. At least the words (if not deeds) of new media proponents stressing the nature of the net as the forum for critical individuals to voice their visions about our society and culture have shaped the prevalent understandings of the role of new media in Estonian art world. It also became quickly obvious that the new media offers different possibilities to circumvent existing official power structures of the art world and to establish oneself in the globally defined space of the internet.

The first event signalling the coming of new media theory and art into Estonian culture was the conference Interstanding in 1995 in Tallinn. Even though it was preceded by the creation of E-media lab in Estonian Academy of Arts in 1994 it was really this event which brought the issues of new media culture and technology into limelight. Interstanding (Understanding Interactivity) was the first international conference in the whole Baltic region which focussed on interactive multimedia industry and global computer communication networks. The conference stated its aim as to “create a coherent perspective on the social, cultural and economical implications of this emerging global infrastructure for computer-based communication and the interactive multi-media industry, to put these developments in perspective for the Baltic and neighbouring countries.”[4] Even though the first Interstanding was not accompanied by the new media works by local artists it was linked to the annual exhibition of SCCA “Biotopia” (curated by Sirje Helme and Eha Komissarov), the concept of which was combined from biology, technology, utopia and which brought into focus the issues such as biotechnology, virtuality, body limits, etc. Among others the exhibition presented first elaborations on interactivity (the interactive video installation by Ando Keskküla “Always”) and offered witty comments on computerised communication and entertainment (Rauno Remme “Wanna play?”).

Interstanding 2 (1997), was the series of art and media events including the fifth annual exhibition of Estonian SCCA, the conference on the topic of freedom in relation to the net, and numerous satellite exhibitions and presentations.[5] Its major task was to pose the questions of freedom, subversion, and artist’s responsibility in the net, thereby bringing the artistic production out of its “independent” solitude. This emphasis on the social implication of art was especially significant as the widespread understanding of artistic identity and creativity in Estonian art community rests still upon the modernist ideas of  unlimited power of an individual creator. Interstanding 2 annual exhibition part, curated by Ando Keskküla, had for the first time a special section dedicated to the new media projects (net art and CD-ROM-s) by Estonian artists such as Raivo Kelomees, Tiia Johannson, Virve Sarapik, Nelli Rohtvee, and Mare Tralla.[6]

The general reception of their work, however, was somewhat pessimistic. For instance, the collective piece “CyberTower” was interpreted as follows: although offering a possibility for interaction the work will “bear fruit sometime in the future.” Only then it will prove if their “trap in the net” will be noticed among thousands of similar projects, that offer opportunity to communicate which may turn out to be a mere illusion.[7]

Interstanding 3 in 1999 continued this series of events, this time with exhibition and conference on the topic of “Beyond the Edge.” The curator of the exhibition Ando Keskküla and of the conference Eric Kluitenberg (Amsterdam) sought to theorise the changing art and social landscape in the situation where the old binary oppositions such as centre/periphery, dominant/marginal, establishment/underground, system/opposition, etc. do not hold. What has meant the collapse of big divisions such as East/West, capitalist/communist blocks? How can the position of a critical, oppositional artist be defined when the borderlines between centre and margins are in constant changing? Does the present situation mean the end of hierarchies and the celebration of post-modern relativism? Not at all, on the contrary, after the collapse of “iron curtain” the new borders are constantly being built, the new hierarchies emerge and we discover ourselves inescapably on the one or the other side of some border. However, the message of Interstanding 3 was that critical artists and theorists are to overcome the either-or choice between (oppressive) system and the conscious self-marginalisation, that is deliberate retreat from the art mainstream. After all, it ahs become clear that as far as the social and cultural agency is concerned, the outsiders (often) do not exist.

Another initiative grew out from what used to be French-Baltic video festival in the first part of the 1990s, transformed into “Offline@online: French-Nordic-Baltic video and new media festival” in 1998. The organisers of this event were Raivo Kelomees and Tiia Johannson, two of our most active new media enthusiasts. The project was realised as an undertaking of E-media lab of Estonian Academy of Arts, thus, quite unsurprisingly trying to involve and address the younger art audience and the students. The second “edition” of offline@online media art festival in 1999 introduced a concept of “media non grata” defining the position of new media art as “the Art in the Corner, and the abandonment of the hierarchy-focused worldview.”[8] It was interesting to observe how “Media Non Grata” sought in a way to set an alternative to big venues (such as Interstandings) in directing its interests differently from those of central media exhibitions. Key words such as low-tech, trash-art played an important role in connecting to similar projects elsewhere from which “Redundant technology Project” in Sheffield, UK or “Trash-art” festival in Moscow were presented also to the local audience.

Artists’ Words

We happen to be in an ironical situation - while multitude of languages is typical for mankind (and it was an endpoint of Babel), then in cyberspace we can see erasure of differences and return to lingua franca or English. We are moving into the pre-Babel situation.[9]

This is the opening statement of work entitled “CyberTower” ( by Raivo Kelomees, Tiia Johannson, Virve Sarapik, and Nelli Rohtvee a tower of links which can be “inhabited” by anyone who chooses to send a link of his/her homepage. As the project is to explore the comings and goings of its virtual inhabitants, its environment is both metaphorically and literally defined in terms of (a new type of) written language as means of communication. This fascination with language, connected to the specificity of online communication, can be further observed in many net art pieces which often tend to be heavily scripto-visual rather than image-centred.

Tiia Johannson has presented her net projects in several online exhibitions among which ISEA98 exhibition ‘Revolution’ may be the most significant. One of her most successful net project ‘Words’ 
( deals with the characteristics of computer mediated communication and net culture. The moving sequences of concepts like ‘global community’, ‘hyperlove’, ‘virtual library’ and others link either to author’s own statements in Java script or her earlier video pieces. Odd connections between phrases and video images suggest some sort of interrupted logic, the hypertextual logic the internet surfer is subjected to while following the unpredictable trajectory from one link to another.

Nelli Rohtvee has been present in the Estonian art scene for a relatively long time as artist and critic but since mid-1990s her major interest has been channelled into the net. Already the personality of the artist stands for the “will-the-real-body-please-stand-up” characteristic of the internet, in other words, it is fictitious or, if you wish, virtual. And even though her personality has emerged as a common alter ego of two artists Rohtvee deserves to be treated separately from them for her artistic and literary activity has always been distinguishable from that of Johannson or Kelomees.

Rohtvee’s hypertextual net-poetry ( was the first Estonian net project presented in the international scene during the ‘Ostranenie 97’ festival in Dessau. Together with Tralla and Johannson she also took part in the ISEA98 exhibition. Rohtvee draws heavily upon local cultural context: her ‘Net-poetry,’ although written mostly in English but containing Estonian texts too, forms a net compilation of what might be called a commentary on present-day Estonian cultural production. Her poems include phrases, titles, and opinions from published articles on Estonian culture also providing links to relevant texts and/or homepages available in the net. Thus, her poems function as a subjective summary of what happens in the Estonian culture of the 1990s and how it is reflected in the writings of different local authors. Her own attitude, often ironic, is expressed by means of paraphrasing, reinterpretation, and her own, ‘original’ lines.

In writing this type of net poetry, Rohtvee seems to question also the meaning of authorship and the originality of the work of art contesting modern notions of artistic creation as something remarkably unique. This method of scratching was used already by Nelli’s ‘spiritual mother’, Johannson in her earlier video pieces which often consisted of TV-materials, pieces from her husband’s video work , and other materials. The notions of original creation and authorship were also challenged in Johannson’s MA-thesis which was presented as hypertext and as such ‘incorporated’ the large variety of different written articles accessible in the net.[10] The invisible and confusing figure of Nelli Rohtvee herself calls into question the notion of the art producer as ‘great’, public, visible, and heroic (male) figure. Her artistic activities question further the authority of the authors and texts she mercilessly uses.

Rohtvee’s particular attention to net culture is further developed in her net trilogy which explores new types of “poetry”. For instance, her chatpoetry is based on the specific way of communication as it occurs in the chatroom (, the project which rises the questions of internet security, privacy and artistic ethics. At the same time, it draws the attention to the fact that “online intimacy has created a new use of language – with new words – and new syntax – and corresponding new levels of understanding. And, language as a driver of thought […] will impact society, and humanity will evolve with the new lingo found in online communication.”[11]

Also Virve Sarapik”s “Luusimisi -- Soft Memories” ( and Annika Tonts’ “Ten leaps” ( play with the language, with textual. In Tonts’ work the text forms into something comparable to streams of consciousness full of nonsense, repetitions, unexpected continuities. Even when she states “I don`t think words can say more than images” she is concerned with language, with its power to communicate and yet always miscommunicate failing to convey the “true” message. In the same line of scripto-visual works stands also Marko Mäetamm’s hilarious story of creation and lost paradise entitled “The Chemistry of Being”  (

Mare Tralla’s works use quite different visual language influenced by popular culture and applied arts and often by cyberfeminist strategies. For instance, installation “Blimp-Eye” (1999) presented on Interstanding 3 and Video Positive 2000 in Liverpool consisted of hand-made pink rubber ball which was hanging in the air and “talking” to the viewers via screen on its surface. Its only “wish” was to be touched, caressed, hugged as a result of which the camera-eye recorded the face of the viewer on the screen. Thus, she evokes the contradiction of digital surveillance and intimacy as well as at first sight seemingly exclusionary relationship between high-technology and handicrafts.

One of the central concerns of contemporary art has been to interrupt the overflow of beautiful images, the phenomenon which among other things defines our era as the age of spectacle. In this sense the hypertextuality and language-based projects function similarly to the works engaged in the critique of seductive power of representation. They no doubt interrupt the scopophilic pleasure and undermine the possibility of uncritical identification with beautiful images as it so often happens in the case of video art. This, however, is not to deny the seduction of the computer technology which can often result in “technological determinism” be it in theory or in creating a work of art.[12]

And yet, I dare to claim that the discussed works have managed to escape the danger of falling into the trap of technological tricks which allows me to follow Sadie Plant's though of line in believing that “hypertext collapses distinctions between readers and writers, producers and consumers, and this is merely the start of devastating changes wrought by the digitalization of information. The emergence of the Net and hypertext is also concurrent with a shift in […] the role and status of […] all aspects of education and the so-called production of knowledge.”[13]


Cyberfeminist Interventions

I would rather be a cyborg than a goddess.[14]

New technology has opened up new spaces for women. Even though women are still minority among Internet users, there is a growing tendency in a number of women online both in professional and private purposes. As women are psychologically more inclined to networking and close relationships, they find the specificity of internet communication close to their needs. The online environment for intimacy is primarily conversational, which is for women as communicators more dynamic and natural way of communication.[15]

Also cyberpunk authors and especially cyberfeminists define cyberspace as a feminine space thereby opposing a view of technology as masculine and hostile towards women. “It is a space that has, in a way, always been more familiar to women, which seems to have been coded feminine in a specific way,” concludes Marie-Luise Angerer, summarising how cyberspace has usually been described by women sci-fi writers.[16] Cyberfeminism which has marked its significant presence on the net continues to develop new strategies for women artists and theorists to engage with and intervene into computer mediated communication and technologies.  

New media seems to attract also quite a few Estonian women artists dealing with the issues of sexual difference. Not all their works must be necessarily described as (cyber)feminist but there are remarkable imprints of cyberfeminist sensitivity present in the new media works by Estonian women artists.

In this sense, the most well-known representative of feminist enquiry in art, Mare Tralla is especially important. Her first home page “my very first web-page it does not have a name”

( and net project “Love-line” ( belong to the most explicit and complex examples of speaking the feminine – in a sense of both women’s reality and the difference from the dominant culture and mode of knowledge -- in Estonian art. “Love-line” is a witty, playful commentary on sex and sexuality, especially from women's point of view. It ridicules the stereotypical gender roles and prejudices about sex as they are passed on from generation to generation. Her CD-ROM ‘’ (1998) deals with stereotypes originating in the history of Estonia and pays particular attention to constructions of femininity in the Soviet regime which she frequently juxtaposes to those of the West and those currently in the making within  Estonian society. Tralla traces contradictions, dead-ends but also compatibilities among these three different social realities (national Estonian culture, the Soviet regime and the West) regarding women’s lives. By manipulating and working on stereotypes, she attempts a tentative exploration of Estonian women’s response to feminism - largely formed as a reaction to the pseudo-equality of the Soviet era.

Both her off-line and on-line works are best described by what Rosi Braidotti has called the politics of parody or parodic repetition which being grounded and sustaining a political effect, can provide a politically empowering position.[17] In other words, she exploits the wide-spread feminist strategy of using irony and laughter as her major stylistic device while providing the critique of social practices of signification, especially those related to the issues of gender.

Although neither Rohtvee nor Johannson have publicly declared their feminist position, their sympathies towards feminist dismantling of the (gender) stereotypes that govern the social consciousness are obvious. Both have dealt with the issues of female body and its social implication in their earlier works and Johannson uses her earlier video pieces in her net projects as well. 

Johannson’s one of the latest works on the net “get.real”
( features her unborn baby as seen on the ultrasound picture. Similar to previously discussed “Words” she uses the truisms about Internet age and computerised communication which link to the image of the baby in mother's body.

“get.real” addresses the complex interrelationship of nature/life and technology, literally drawing out the blurred borderlines of our existence. The baby exists (in reality) only in the mother’s body and, yet, its (virtual) presence exceeds these limits. It’s somewhat eerie to look at the moving foetus in the mother’s body being mediated on the screen of the computer. From common sense point of view there is a tension between what is happening and how things supposed to happen – the human being is not born but is already on the Internet. However, this tension finds its solution in the title “get.real”, the demand which as if reconstructs the normal order of things. But the piece has also further implications. By opening up the inside of pregnant women’s body, the womb on the screen the artist defines a cyberspace as exclusively maternal. The space “behind” the screen becomes the Matrix, the location of the feminine. That corresponds to the views by many artists and theorists who claim that the “interiority of cyberspace, like the interior of a cave, is like being enclosed inside the womb”.[18] Another work related to the artist’s own maternity is “Baby meeting paintings” where the colourful world of images, the child’s immediate world is exists side by side to games with words. 

The artist herself has confessed in an interview that she was looking forward to the emergence of a cyberfeminist  movement in Estonian culture.[19] Indeed, there seem to exist a special promise on the part of new technology for critical women artists.

Net Artist: Between the Action and Invisibility

Only few years ago the marginalisation of digital art in general art criticism was quite striking. This lack of interest was based often on false premises of net art as something close to a game or joke rather than (serious) work of art. Mare Tralla described the situation of the new media art in Estonia after Interstanding 2 as follows: although the country is covered with the internet access and artists cannot complain about the lack of technological possibilities, the net culture as such is lacking. At the same time, the net is widely used in commercial and information purposes by official institutions. The interest in the possibilities of the internet as a free medium on the part of critically thinking individuals, including artists, is insignificant. She also pointed out the fact that young artists tend to see and use the new media as a mere technological innovation not being aware of or interested in the internet as a place for free, interactive communication.[20]

We can probably guess whether and to what extent the suspicions in the new media art are connected to its refusal to contribute to the production and circulation of, to put it bluntly, “great” works of art created by “great” artists. In several aspects, the residence of certain digital art and especially net art still remains outside the general picture of the institutionally defined art world. The works reside outside the approved exhibition space, the artist does not appear in the opening and click champagne glasses with the guests, the institutional trajectories can be bypassed in many cases, etc.  

Maybe I do exaggerate in saying this but there are the connections between more non-personal nature of net art and the unwillingness to incorporate it as part of contemporary visual culture in Estonia. Even if the utopian exclamations about computer mediated communication constituting subjects as unstable, multiple and diffuse[21] are premature and overlook the power relations inherent in the virtual as well as real world, it is true, that the identity of the artist-creator undergoes significant changes after moving from gallery space into virtual. There seems to be no place for heroic artistic genius whose personality and creation would stand for what can be regarded as representative if not national art. I prefer to conceive the new media practices in local context as assigned to question the modernist premises that underlie the local art establishment as well as the identity of the artist put forward by it.

Last Interstanding in autumn 1999 was among other things a retrospective look on what has been happening and what has been done in the field of (new) media art. The participants of penal session tried also to envision some plans and strategies for the future. One thing which became clear was that more attention is to be paid on generating variety of local responses instead on exporting the media art and theory from the places it has already established itself as an organic part of culture. Ideally, the monopoly of central media exhibitions is to give way to multitude of smaller and new initiatives.

Another idea which remained in the air was to seek the way out of self-marginalisation and willing ghettoisation. Do we really want the new media events turn into just “a meeting of the sect” as Media Non Grata put it? The solution of “art in the corner” means for some people willingly to distance oneself from the establishment and its institutions and concentrate on building up the international links. Yet, this also means to renounce the critical power of the net art to participate and alternate, to subvert the monopoly of cultural identities and production. Instead of transforming the binary concepts of domination and marginalisation be it to refer to local/global, national/ transnational or mainstream media/media non grata, these oppositions become stronger.

If “ the different ways of financing and organising cultural production have traceable consequences for the range of discourses and representations in the public domain and for audiences’ access to them.”[22] then the silence of art establishment as well as distancing of the new media enthusiasts produces as many meanings as loud-voice propaganda. After all, the struggle for their place on the part of “alternative”, new institutions and festivals themselves confirms that there is no existence outside the system: either you are in or you do not exist.

The next new media event which will take place in November 2000, the offline@online festival under the title “dig_in_time” might offer a look into what ca be the possible further developments. Its sets its task as “an agitation to deepen / to dig in to time and  presence”[23] which means to work with the generation of artists using digital media here and now. The “intime” (intimate in French) aspect of the festival will hopefully open up also the discussion on the social implications of “private” online communication and thereby strengthen the idea of interconnectedness of art, technology, and social interaction.

Instead of Conclusion

As we saw the new media art scene in Estonia is defined institutionally by big or not so big but international art festivals. This differs from many other art fields which are very often self-sufficiently “local”. Also the activities of digital and especially net artists are directed more to international rather than local audience which again makes them quite different from the aims of so-called traditional art. 

During 1999 Interstanding conference I was asked a question why do I speak about “Estonian new media” artists and do I mean by that claiming the existence of something which might be called “Estonian new media art”. My answer was no and it remains so. After trying to look at what is that what defines the locality of new media art in Estonia it is precisely this neither-nor characteristic: it is here and not here, there and not there, it wants to be part (of local art establishment), yet to stay apart.

There is no doubt that sooner or later the practices discussed here will set a base for some sort of new establishment. Yet, I am sure that the new critical practices and initiatives working against its own establishment will emerge. After all, only some of us need to get real and some of us need an utopia. Net art and net culture is one among many places one can find them. 

[1] Kluszczynski, Ryszard W.  “Artistic Territories of (Multi)Media” in The catalogue of the international multimedia exhibition Lab 6. (Warsaw: Center for Contemporary Art, Ujazdowski Castle, 1997) p. 15.

[2] Kelomees, Raivo. Offline @online ehk digitaalne ja netikunst (Offline @online or Digital and Net Art), cultural weekly Sirp, December 4, 1998. 

[3] These views were presented by Linnar Viik during the Interstanding 3 conference in autumn, 1999.



[6] The short list of Estonian net art dating back to 1997 is available at

For the selection of net videos made in 1998 look

[7]  Varblane, Reet. “Interstanding -- kallis, lühike ja tähtis näitus” (“Interstanding: Expensive, Short and Important Exhibition”), daily Eesti Päevaleht, October 22, 1997.

[8] Kelomees, Raivo. “Introduction: Art in the Corner – Media Non Grata”

[9] Kelomees, Raivo. “Background and explanation to the “CyberTower””

[10] Johannson, Tiia. Marginal Status in Digital Age. MFA Thesis.                 

[11] Huffman, Kathy Rae. “Cyber Intimacy: From Net Cookie to Coffee Talk.” A presentation at Interfiction, the Kasseler Dokumentarfilm- und Videofest, 6-13 December 1995.

[12] On how to balance between not dissolving the technological constituents of the media into culture and discourse or separating media technologies from those see, for instance, Terranova, Tiziana. “Infallable Universal Happiness: Media Technology and Creativity” in Private Views: Spaces and Gender in Contemporary Art from Britain and Estonia (London: Women’s Art Library, forthcoming);

[13] Plant, Sadie. “The Virtual Complexity of Culture” in FutureNatural: Nature, Science, Culture, ed. Geroge Robertson and others (London and New York: Routledge, 1996), p. 207. (my emphasis)

[14] Haraway, Donna. “A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century” in Cimians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature (London: Free Association Books 1991) p. 181.

[15] Huffman, 1995.

[16] Angerer, Marie-Luise. 1999. “Space Does Matter: On Cyber and Other Bodies” in European Journal of Cultural Studies, Vol. 2(2):209-229. 

[17] Braidotti, Rosi. 1997 [1996]. “Cyberfeminism with a Difference” in Feminisms, ed. Sandra Kemp and Judith Squires (Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 1997) pp. 520-529.

[18] Morse, Margaret. “Virtually Female: Body and Code” in Processed Lives: Gender and Technology in Everyday Life, ed. Jennifer Terry and Melodie Calvert (New York, London: Routledge, 1997) p. 27.

[19] Interview given to the author, 9 September 1998.

[20] Tralla, Mare. “Vabadusest kriitilise pilguga” (“Critical look at freedom”), weekly Eesti Ekspress, October 28, 1997.

[21] See, for instance: Poster, Mark. “Postmodern Virtualities” in FutureNatural: Nature, Science, Culture, ed. George Robertson and others (London and New York: Routledge, 1996).

[22] Golding, P and G. Murdock. “Culture, Communication and Political Economy” in Mass Media and Society, ed. J. Curran and M. Gurevich (London: Edward Arnolds, 1991). Quoted in Dahlberg, Lincoln. “Cyberspace and the Public Sphere: Exploring the Democratic Potential of the Net,” Convergence, Spring 1998, vol. 4, no. 1: 70-84, p. 73.